Light varies in intensity, quality (wavelength) and duration. Although the amount of water required during photosynthesis is hardly one percent of the total amount of water absorbed by the plant, yet any change in the amount of water absorbed by a plant has significant effect on its rate of photosynthesis.

The rate of a metabolic process is controlled by the magnitude of each factor. Furthermore, oxygen is liberated out into the atmosphere through the leaves as a waste product.

D:5 These bacteria possess purple pigment bacteriorhodopsin attached to plasma membrane. Visible spectrum can be resolved into light of different colours i.e., violet (390-430 nm), blue or indigo (430-470 nm), blue green (470-500 nm), green (500 – 580 nm), yellow (580 – 600 nm), orange (600 – 650 nm), orange red (650 – 660 nm) and red (660 – 760 nm). Out of this only 2.2 x 1013 tonnes are present in the atmosphere @ 0.03%.

A:10 It contains cp-DNA (0.5%), RNA (2—3%), Plastoribosome (70S), enzymes for carbon dioxide assimilation, proteins (50—60%), starch grains and osmophilic droplets, vitamin E and K, Mg, Fe, Mn, P, etc. Glucose and other carbohydrates are synthesized in the carbon-fixing reaction of photosynthesis, often called the Calvin cycle after Melvin Calvin, who performed much of the biochemical research (see Figure 5-3). Kortschak, Hartt and Burr (1965) reported that rapidly photosynthesizing sugarcane leaves produced a 4-C compound like aspartic acid and malic acid as a result of CO2 – fixation.

To explain it further, say at a given time, only the factor that is most limiting among all will determine the rate of photosynthesis.

Photosynthetic pigments absorb visible part of the radiation i.e., 380 mμ, to 760 mμ. This gradient is important because it is the breakdown of this gradient that leads to release of energy. Photosynthesis begins with the light reaction which is carried out only during the day in the presence of sunlight. Pigments are other fundamental cellular components of photosynthesis.

This happens because the primary accepter of electron which is located towards the outer side of the membrane transfers its electron not to an electron carrier but to an H carrier. cycle or dark reactions.


Carbon dioxide acceptor in C4 plant is PEPA and key enzyme is PEPCO. After carbon dioxide has been joined to ribulose bisphosphate, a six-carbon product forms, which immediately breaks into two three-carbon molecules called phosphoglycerate. Liebig (1843) proposed law of minimum which states that the rate of a process is limited by the pace (rapidity) of the slowest factor. A: element There are two important types of phycobilins-Phycoerythrin (Red) and Phycocyanin (Blue). For example, both processes synthesize and use ATP, the energy currency. Step 2. …, oms in 5 H2O? The assimilation number of variegated variety of a species was found to be higher than the green leaves variety. B:3 (2) Dark reaction or Dark phase or Light independent phase or Biochemical phase.

Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1.

Literally photosynthesis means ‘synthesis using light’. For example, chlorophyll absorbs blue and red light. Red light above 700 nm is called far red. Question. Photosynthesis is also used by algae to convert solar energy into chemical energy. Answer Now and help others.

All animals and heterotrophic plants depend upon the green plants for their organic food, and therefore, the green plants are called producers, while all other organisms are known as consumers. The end of disc shape thylakoid is called as margin and the area where the thylakoids membranes are appressed together is called partition. It was later supported by M. D. Hatch and C. R. Slack (1966) and they reported that a 4-C compound oxaloacetic acid (OAA) is the first stable product in CO2 reduction process.

We know that the enzyme RUBISCO (Ribulose biphosphate carboxylase oxygenase) catalyzes the carboxylation reaction, where CO2 combines with RuBP for calvin cycle (dark reaction of photosynthesis) to initiate.

This is the exact answer they're looking for: The roots absorb water and nutrients.

Step 3. During photosynthesis in green plants, light energy is captured and used to convert water, carbon dioxide, and minerals into oxygen and energy-rich organic compounds. The other intermediate components of electron transport chain viz., PQ (plasto quinone) and PC (plastocyanin) act as mobile electron carriers between two pigment systems. (tropical grasses), but later on the other subtropical plant like Atriplex spongiosa (Salt bush), Dititaria samguinolis, Cyperus rotundus, Amaranthus etc.

6.9). Dimorphic (two morphologically distinct type) chloroplasts occur in C4 plants (Fig.

In plants, the light-dependent reaction takes place in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts. Emerson and his co-workers (1957) found that the inefficient far red light in Chlorella beyond 680nm could be made fully efficient if supplemented with light of short wave length. Enhanced supply of O2 increases the rate of respiration simultaneously decreasing the rate of photosynthesis by the common intermediate substances.

It means that 8 photons or quantum’s are required to release one molecule of oxygen.

This process also generates additional molecules of ribulose bisphosphate to participate in further carbon-fixing reactions. The carbon dioxide produced during respiration is released from the body and absorbed by plants to help provide the energy they need for growth and development. (iii) Some workers have shown that the pace of reaction can be controlled simultaneously by two or more factors.

The Calvin cycle is also called the light-independent reaction. Light reaction or photochemical reaction takes place in thylakoid membrane or granum and it is completely dependent upon the light. It occurs under conditions of low light intensity, wavelength longer than 680 nm and when CO2 fixation is inhibited. D. How can I measure Jill's speed. Water gets into the plant mainly through the roots and finds its way to the leaves, where photosynthesis occurs. CAM plants have parenchyma cells, which are large and vacuolated. Leaves contain microscopic cellular organelles known as chloroplasts.

Photosynthesis takes place in two stages, namely light-dependent reactions and light-independent reactions. The splitting of water during photosynthesis is called Photolysis of water. 2. Internal or genetic factors are all related with leaf and include protoplasmic factors, chlorophyll contents, structure of leaf, accumulation of end product etc. During day time the stomata in Crassulacean plants remain closed to check transpiration, but photosynthesis does take place in the presence of sun light.

These plants are ecologically significant because they can reduce rate of transpiration during day time, and are well adapted to dry and hot habitats. Maximum photosynthesis has been observed in red light than in blue light followed by yellow light (monochromatic light). Sachs (1860) recognized three critical values, the cardinal values or points of the magnitude of each factor. With the help of Phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPCO) enzyme the CO2 is immediately fixed, and here the acceptor molecule is Phosphoenol pyruvate (PEP).

The organic compound formed converts to still another organic compound using the energy present in NADPH. Otherwise, as we know, photosynthetic organs release oxygen and not CO2 under normal situation.

They can very well grow in saline soils because of presence of C4 organic acid.

This decline in photosynthesis is called Red drop effect (Emerson’s first experiment). The extruded electron passes through FRS ferredoxin, and NADP -reductase which combines it with NADP+ for becoming reduced through H+ releasing during photolysis to form NADPH2. The raw materials for this reactions are pigments, water and sunlight. Hence, the photosynthesis reaction is considered to be an endothermic reaction.

(vii) C3-cycle takes place and glucose synthesies.

The remaining nine hundred ninety-nine thousand seven hundred are other gas molecules. A visual representation of the photosynthesis reaction, Also Read: Photosynthesis in Higher plants. Photosynthesis is a biological process utilized by all green plants to synthesize their own nutrients. 2. B: compound, HELP i will give crown and 15 points

These are minimum, optimum and maximum. The process of photosynthesis requires solar energy, water and carbon dioxide.

The break down of the gradient provides enough energy to cause a conformational change in the F1 particle of the ATPase, which makes the enzyme synthesis several molecules of energy-packed ATP. (CAM was for the first time studied and reported by Ting (1971). Because electrons have flowed out of the P680 reaction center, the chlorophyll molecules are left without a certain number of electrons. (viii) First stable product OAA (4C) produces. Calvin cycle completes in 4 major phases: 3. (A) Light Reaction takes place in thylakoid membrane or granum.

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