As the OH radical is an excellent electrophile, it reacts preferentially with electron-rich CH bonds and/or CC bonds. Troposphere, main gases, composition and abundance, Stratosphere, atmospheric layer where temperature rises with altitude, Layers of Earth's atmosphere, order and characteristics. It is estimated that tropospheric N2O has increased by ~10% from preindustrial 1750. The transport of trace components generally follows the mean air currents established by the general circulation patterns in the troposphere. Troposphere definition, the lowest layer of the atmosphere, 6 miles (10 km) high in some areas and as much as 12 miles (20 km) high in others, within which there is a steady drop in temperature with increasing altitude and within which nearly all cloud formations occur and weather conditions manifest themselves. The OH radical oxidizes molecules typically via H-abstraction and double bond addition mechanisms. Carbon dioxide and methane are two very important greenhouse gases found in the troposphere. For longer-lived trace gases that permeate the entire troposphere, the reservoir theory holds.
DJF, December, January, February; MAM, March, April, May; JJA, June, July, August; SON, September, October, November. On a global, annual average basis, the modern tropospheric air composition excluding H2O, CO2, CH4, and N2O is listed in Table 1.1, which is termed “dry air”. Most chemical reactions follow second-order kinetics. The troposphere is by far the wettest layer of the atmosphere; all of the layers above contain very little moisture. This layer gets its name from the weather that is constantly changing and mixing up the gases in this part of our atmosphere. Over the land, the relative humidity varies from below 5% over deserts to over 90% in coastal areas. From this moment the water evaporates and rises with the hot air to colder heights. This is where we see airplanes, helicopters and all those means of transport that use air to go from one place to another. Atmospheric Environment 34: 2063–2101, with permission. The troposphere and the stratosphere are separated by a boundary called the tropopause, whose altitude varies from about 16 km in the tropics to about 8 km near the poles. In the troposphere, water vapor, which accounts for up to ∼1% of air, varies spatially and decreases rapidly with altitude. Over global oceans, the relative humidity near the surface is close to 100%. In the troposphere, numerous field campaigns have been conducted to investigate air composition over developed areas, such as North America, Europe, East Asia, Australia and New Zealand, their downwind areas, such as the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean, and remote regions, such as the Arctic and Antarctic areas. Freshly emitted CO2 is partly fixed by plants over the land and in surface waters, and partly dissolved into water bodies. The temperature decreases as well, from an average 287 K at the surface to ∼200 K. The tropopause is defined by a reversal of the temperature gradient, in the stratosphere the temperature rises again. See more. Manufacturing, garbage burning, fish meal production, domestic kitchens, small-scale businesses, etc., are the ones responsible for producing more pollutants every day.
The troposphere is the thinnest layer of the atmosphere, but at the same time it is where the most turbulence is found. 3.1.8. The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere. This important atmosphere layer acts as a thermal regulator for the planet; without this layer and without temperature regulation the thermal differences between day and night would be so great that we would not be able to survive. N2O is a potent greenhouse gas, with a 100-year global warming potential 310 times that of CO2, according to the IPCC.
The troposphere is a reasonably well-mixed reservoir only for long-lived trace compounds, whereas others with lifetimes less than 1 yr will develop spatially nonuniform distributions. Troposphere is protected from hard UV radiation. The most important oxidant in the troposphere, in terms of reactivity, is the OH radical, despite its very low concentrations. These three oxidants have unique reactivity, and oxidize gas-phase molecules, aqueous-phase molecules (e.g., cloud processing), and particle surfaces through different mechanisms. The uptake of a trace gas by materials at the earth surface (soils and vegetation) also represents a first-order process. The largest amount of gas we can find in our atmosphere is nitrogen. The height of the top of the troposphere varies with latitude (it is lowest over the poles and highest at the equator) and by season (it is lower in winter and higher in summer). Troposphere, lowest region of the atmosphere, bounded by the Earth beneath and the stratosphere above, with its upper boundary being the tropopause, about 10–18 km (6–11 miles) above the Earth’s surface. The troposphere is bounded above by the tropopause, a boundary marked in most places by a temperature inversion (i.e., a layer of relatively warm air above a colder one), and in others by a zone which is isothermal with height. As an industrial resource, N2 is routinely used to make nitrogen fertilizers and is used as a liquid agent for small surgery, and He is used to fill balloons. In fact, research has suggested that the CO2 mixing ratio rose from ~280 ppmv in 1750 to ~310 ppmv in 1950, according to ice-core analyses, and to ~380 ppmv in 2010 based on measurements at a ground station of ~3 km ASL at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a Nobel Laureate, 2007).
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That's why the cabins of high-flying jet aircraft are pressurized.
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